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Pharmacology of Silymarin

作者: 合健生物    来源:  Chang Sha Heking Biotechnology Co., Ltd.    时间: 2020-12-31

The flavonoid silymarin and one of its structural components, silibinin, are substances with documented hepatoprotective properties. Their mechanisms of action are still poorly understood. However, the data in the literature indicate that silymarin and silibinin act in four different ways: (i) as antioxidants, scavengers and regulators of the intracellular content of glutathione; (ii) as cell membrane stabilisers and permeability regulators that prevent hepatotoxic agents from entering hepatocytes; (iii) as promoters of ribosomal RNA synthesis, stimulating liver regeneration; and (iv) as inhibitors of the transformation of stellate hepatocytes into myofibroblasts, the process responsible for the deposition of collagen fibres leading to cirrhosis. The key mechanism that ensures hepatoprotection appears to be free radical scavenging. Anti-inflammatory and anticarcinogenic properties have also been documented. Silymarin is able to neutralise the hepatotoxicity of several agents, including Amanita phalloides, ethanol, paracetamol (acetaminophen) and carbon tetrachloride in animal models. The protection against A. phalloides is inversely proportional to the time that has elapsed since administration of the toxin. Silymarin protects against its toxic principle α-amanitin by preventing its uptake through hepatocyte membranes and inhibiting the effects of tumour necrosis factor-α, which exacerbates lipid peroxidation. Pharmacokinetic studies have shown that silymarin is absorbed by the oral route and that it distributes into the alimentary tract (liver, stomach, intestine, pancreas). It is mainly excreted as metabolites in the bile, and is subject to enterohepatic circulation. Toxicity is very low, the oral 50% lethal dose being 10 000 mg/kg in rats and the maximum tolerated dose being 300 mg/kg in dogs. Moreover, silymarin is devoid of embryotoxic potential.

 

Extracted from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/233588421_Pharmacology_of_Silymarin

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